Today in Ancient History on 25th July, Emperor Constantius died at York in the year 306 A.D.
In Rome, in the ancient Trastevere district, there was the Furrinalia Festival for the Earth-mother-goddess-wife of Neptune, with public sacrifices on the Janiculum hill.
Finally, on this day in 325 A.D. the Council of Nicea ended. The Council of Nicea was one of the most important Church councils where much of the Catholic creed recited each Sunday and Solemnity was formulated (together with the Council of Constantinople [now Istanbul] in 381 AD). The Council of Nicea was convened to deal with the heresy of Arius (known as Arianism). The heresy propounded by Arius and his gnostic followers essentially, using Greek terms, denies that the Son of God is of one essence, nature, or substance with God; He is not consubstantial (homoousios) with the Father, and therefore not like Him, or equal in dignity, or co-eternal, or within the real sphere of Deity. They believed the Son of God was made by the Father out of nothing, and that the Son then made the rest of creation. Their slogan was “There was a time when he was not”.
Opened by the new Roman Emperor Constantine, the Council of Nicea formally reaffirmed that the Son of God is consubstantial with the Father. The Son of God is God. Below is the formula proclaimed in defending and clarifying the Teaching given to the disciples by Jesus:
We believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten of the Father, that is, of the substance [ek tes ousias] of the Father, God of God, light of light, true God of true God, begotten not made, of the same substance with the Father [homoousion to patri], through whom all things were made both in heaven and on earth; who for us men and our salvation descended, was incarnate, and was made man, suffered and rose again the third day, ascended into heaven and cometh to judge the living and the dead. And in the Holy Ghost. Those who say: There was a time when He was not, and He was not before He was begotten; and that He was made out of nothing (ex ouk onton); or who maintain that He is of another hypostasis or another substance [than the Father], or that the Son of God is created, or mutable, or subject to change, [them] the Catholic Church anathematizes.
The effect on Catholic Christian belief from that point and on world culture as a result has been immeasurable.